Sunday, 9 April 2017

The Battle of North Point Scenario Rules and Order of Battle

The Battle of North Point
September 12th, 1814


                       A contemporary view of the battle from the American side.


    A view from above from the British side.

You can see the disposition of troops in this map.
A map showing the overall Battle of Baltimore. Unlike New Orleans and Plattsburgh, the army sent to Baltimore was sent to raid and cause havoc not to occupy. When they saw the defences at Baltimore they withdrew. They had defeated two American armies, one at Bladensburg, and one at North Point. They would almost certainly not have taken the defences at Baltimore. The British suffered quite a few casualties at North Point, and General Ross had been killed just before the battle. The campaign had been successful in many ways, but had not been without cost. This British force went on to be defeated at New Orleans and then to successfully capture Fort Bowyer.





The most famous part of the battle. The 5th Maryland Volunteers stood up to the British volley after volley. They were the last Americans to leave the field, and left it in relatively good order.



Here are the forces that were gathering just a few kilometres away from the battle of North Point. There were 20 000 militia with 100 cannons in defensive positions at Hampstead Hill. Definitely more than the 3600 British that remained after North Point could handle. The British goal in the Chesapeake had been to destroy shipping, infrastructure that supported the war effort and cause havoc. In that regard it had been successful. The British had beaten two armies, burned down the Americans capital. This force made about 30 successful raids as well. Their lack of success in the Chesapeake was that they could not take Fort McHenry or get to Baltimore to burn the American fleet and harbour. The British marched back to their ships to head to New Orleans, their greatest loss of the war. The same force captured Fort Bowyer in Georgia after their loss of New Orleans, in the last battle of the war. 

1 Man = 15 
2 Guns = 3


British / Canadian Scenario Rules

Victory Conditions; The British have to rout the Americans.

1. British Infantry Shooting in Line Bonus; British / Canadian infantry get +1 to shooting rolls when in line. Militia and Indians do not get this bonus.


British Order of Battle
Colonel Arthur Brook (44th Foot) (Average)

1st (Light) Brigade
Colonel William Thornton (Average)

85th (Bucks Volunteers) Regiment of Light Infantry (845 men) x30 and X30 (Veteran)
+1 morale
Can refuse a flank
+1 to shooting in line
*Up to 50% of each unit can skirmish

Light Companies 4th, 21st, 44th (214 men) X15 (Veteran)
(Aprox. 65men from  4th, 88men from 21st, 61men from 44th)
+1 morale
Can refuse a flank
+1 to shooting in line
*Entire formation can skirmish


2nd Brigade
Unknown Command (Average)
*Arthur Brook had been in charge, but was the senior commander after Ross was killed.
4th (King's Own) Regiment of Foot (630-63 men) x36 (Veteran) 
+1 morale
Can refuse a flank
+1 to shooting in line

44th Foot (East Essex) Regiment of Foot (610-61 men) x36 (Line)
+1 to shooting in line


Provisional Marine Battalion (Total 405 men) X30 (Line)
Royal Marines Ships Company (80 men) 
2nd Colonial Marines (90men) *these were former slaves
Naval Landing Party (235 men)
*Counts as Light Infantry
+1 melee
+1 to shooting in line
Can deploy up to 50% as skirmishers


3rd Brigade
Colonel Patterson (Average)

21st(Royal North British Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot (884-88 men) x48 (Line)
+1 to shooting in line

2nd Battalion Royal Marines (687 men) x40 (Elite)
*Counts as Light Infantry
+1 to shooting
+1 morale
+1 melee
Can refuse a flank
+1 to shooting in line
Can form open order


Artillery
Total 4 Guns,  Royal Marine Rocket Section; 473 Artillerymen and 56 Miners and Sappers

Royal Foot Artillery (4 6 Pounders) X3 Guns
+1 Morale

Royal Marines Rocket Section X1 Rocket (Veteran)
+1 Morale

Rocket Rules
-Range of 48 inches, must have line of sight, may fire overhead
Roll 2 D6
12 Direct and devastating hit. Six casualties. Consult double six table
11 – 9 Target unit lose 1 casulty and falters BUA’s set alight.
8-4 Miss
3 The nearest friendly unit to the rocket battery is hit by stray rockets and loses two casulties.
2 Rockets double back and strike ammunition. Rocket battery completely destroyed. (Rout)




American Army Scenario Rules
Victory Conditions; The Americans have to hold up the British for 10 turns.

1. Linear Tactics; Line units in the same brigade have to have the same formation except to go around terrain and other units.

2. Chosen Men; Up to 12 men maybe deployed as Chosen Men (Rifles). They roll 2D6 per 4 figures. They can form part of the skirmish screen or operate independently. They do not need to stay within 18 inches of close order units. This unit has a range of 17 inches.

3. Ammunition Problems; American troops carried less ammunition than their British counter parts, and had logistical problems becoming resupplied during battles. Any American infantry unit which rolls a double one for their shooting roll in any turn but their first turn is at half ammunition (inflicts half casualties). A unit will be at full ammunition that does not move or fire for one turn.

4. Cover; The fence visible in the map above in which the American troops took position provide -2 to be hit and +1 morale. Troops in the forest get -1 to be hit and +1 morale.



American Order of Battle
Brigadier General John Stricker (Average)

3rd Maryland Brigade
Brigadier General John Stricker (Average)

5th Maryland Volunteers 550 men x36 (2nd Line)
-1 morale
-round down half casualties 

6th Maryland Militia 620 men  x40 (Conscript)
-1 morale
-1 melee
-2 firing modifier

27th Maryland Militia 500 men  x30 (Conscript)
-1 morale
-1 melee
-2 firing modifier

39th Maryland Militia 450 men  x30 (Conscript)
-1 morale
-1 melee
-2 firing modifier

51st Maryland Militia 700 men  x48 (Conscript)
-1 morale
-1 melee
-2 firing modifier

1st Maryland Rifles 140 men  x9 (Second Line)
*Chosen Men
Union Jagers (German Unit), Fell's Point Rifles, Baltimore Sharpshooters
-1 morale

Artillery
1st Maryland Artillery (4 X 4 pounders) 3 Cannons (Conscript) *Centre
-1 morale
-1 melee
-1 firing modifier

1st Maryland Artillery (2 X 4 pounders) 1 Cannon (Conscript) *American Left
-1 morale
-1 melee
-1 firing modifier


Cavalry *Independent Unit
Lieutenant Colonel James Blays

5th Maryland Cavalry (140 men Total) (Enthusiastic Conscripts) X10
Baltimore Hussars (50 men), Independent Light Dragoons (35men), Maryland Chasseurs (35men), Fells Point Light Dragoons (20 men) *estimates
-1 morale
-1 melee















































































Updated War of 1812 Game List

I have acquired a fort suitable for Fort Meigs, Fort Stephenson. In addition I have updated the scenario rules for Plattsburgh (which had errors). Here is my updated list. I have been too busy with work and kids to do much with any of these lately, though I plan on doing a post on some of my newest scenery. The bolded ones have been fought, I have bolded and italicized those that I have made rules for but have not played.

1811
TippeCanoe *Technically not part of the War of 1812. 
November 7th

1812
Queenstown Heights *Coming up soon
October 13th

1813
Frenchtown
January 22nd

Battle of York
April 27th

Siege of Fort Meigs
May 1st

Battle of Fort George
May 27th

Battle of Sackett's Harbour
May 29th

Battle of Stoney Creek
June 6th

Battle of Beaver Dams
June 24th

Battle of the Thames
October 5th

Battle of Chateauguay
October 26th

Skirmish at Hoople's Creek
November 10th

Battle of Crysler's Farm
November 11th

What If? The Battle of Montreal
November 14th

1814
Battle of Longwoods
March 4th

Battle of Lacolle Mills
March 30th

Battle of Fort Oswego
May 6th

Battle of Chippawa
July 5th

Battle of Lundy's Lane
July 25th

Mackinac Island
August 4th

Seige of Fort Erie
August 15th to September 17th

Battle of Bladensburg *Coming up soon
August 24th

Battle of Plattsburgh *Updated, we will refight this one
September 11th

Battle of North Point *Coming up soon
September 12th

Battle of Cook's Milks
October 19th

What If? The Second Battle of Chippawa


1815
Battle of New Orleans *Coming up soon
January 8th

Sunday, 15 January 2017

American Cavalry Uniforms and Models for the Battle of Bladensburg 1814

Cavalry at the Battle of Bladensburg 1814

American Militia Cavalry during the War of 1812 were wealthier men that could afford to equip themselves. The cavalry from Kentucky and Illinois wore hunting shirts, most other states had a variety of uniforms, we know the uniforms of about half of these. Overall, most uniformed cavalry had tartelans, stovepipe shakos, or a horse hair crest similar to the American line dragoons. All of the head gear used by cavalry in Europe were probably used by militia cavalry units somewhere in the United States. Companies were typically 30 to 50 men, units larger than that were almost always combined from 2 to 6 volunteer companies often all with different uniforms.

The plates shown below were created by "The War of 1812 Uniform Blog", that are relevant to the the Battle of Bladensburg. I have also included some plates from Osprey and Renee Chartrand. At the end of this post I will list what numbers I would use for 1 man equals 15 for this battle.



Bladensburg; Second Line (Forward Left)

Maryland Cavalry; Possibly 240 (possibly up to 300) Cavalry Total 4 (or more) companies
 All / most of the bits you need to make these are in the Perry British Light Dragoons plastic boxed set! It is a fantastic set.

Most of their uniforms are unknown. Maryland state rules were that cavalry were to have a fur covered tartelan, and a dark blue jacket with braiding. Though at North Point, the majority seemed to be wearing stovepipe type shakos (as were many of the Maryland militia infantry). Militia cavalry often came up with their own uniforms.

This is my conjecture based on the fact the the "1st Harford County Light Dragoons" had their standard captured at the battle.
7th Maryland Cavalry District; Harford County-Lt. Col. / Major Unknown
Unknown Type; Captain Smith's Troop
Unknown Type; Captain Jenkin's Troop
Unknown Type; Captain Lee's Troop
Unknown Type; Unknown if 4th Troop existed
*The 1st Harford County Light Dragoons definitely had their standard captured by the British at the Battle of Bladensburg, this leads me to believe that these were troops were present. Some sources specify that it was the 7th Harford County District that was present at the battle.
From; http://www.mdld.org


*Since the uniforms for the Maryland cavalry at Bladensburg are mostly unknown, I would use the uniforms that are known for Maryland from North Point combined with state regulations.


The above two illustrations from "A Most Warlike Appearance" by Renee Chartrand, show the standard militia uniform for Maryland as well as for the the 1st Baltimore Hussars (Maryland). 

This Baltimore Maryland Hussar seems to have a fur busby. 


This painting of the Battle of North Point was created in 1814, and was considered accurate by the American General. Three of the 4 troops have stovepipe type cylindrical stove pipe type shakos, the 4th company (bottom left) seems to have a US Light Dragoon style cavalry helmet with a horse hair plume. 

Here is another contemporary drawing from the Battle of North Point showing the cavalry present. The majority are wearing stove pipe type shakos, with one company having horse hair plumes. Many companies from Maryland also would have worn Tartelans. I have not seen a contemporary drawing of the Maryland Cavalry at Bladensburg. The 5th Maryland Cavalry at North Point consisted of; the 1st Baltimore Hussars, Independent Light Dragoons, Maryland Chasseurs and Fells Point Light Dragoons. They were 140 strong. 


Perry British Light Dragoons; Use these torsos for all Maryland cavalry. Some companies had tartelans as above.

Perry British Light Dragoons; With modification, you could use the shakos above for some Maryland companies but trim off as needed. Green stuff could be used to increase the size of the plume. Alternatively, British infantry stovepipe shakos from the Perry British infantry boxed set could be used as headgear (with some additions to the plume as well).


The black uniform above shows the uniform of the Alexandria Dragoons. I would use the Perry 4th Continental Dragoons from their American War of Independence line to create these. The state regulated uniforms are at left. Black may have been a common state colour, since the District of Columbia Riflemen had black hunting frocks.


District of Columbia Dragoons; Lt.Col.John Tayloe *40 to 50 men 
Alexandria Dragoons (seen above)
The Alexandria Dragoons are named in many sources, I think they were probably the only DC troop present. One source stated that they were being used as couriers and scouts so were not much of a force at the battle.


Cavalry in Reserve
Colonel Jacinct Laval 


2nd Light Dragoons 125 to 140 men
To create these, I would use either Knuckleduster American Light Dragoons, or Brigade Games American Light Dragoons (but trim off the incorrect plume!).


Virginian Light Dragoons 100 men *Amalgamated during the battle with the 2nd Light Dragoons at the Battle
I would use the Perry American War of Independence 16th Light Dragoons




A Summary of the Cavalry Present at 1 model equals 15

Second Line; 280 to 350 Cavalry (21 models plus a command figure)
Maryland 1st, 2nd and 5th Districts; 240 to 300 men 4 Companies (18 models)
1st Harford County Light Dragoons, plus 3 unknown troops
*X 6 Perry Plastic British Light Dragoons (Baltimore Hussars Uniform)
*X 6 Perry Plastic British Light Dragoons (Maryland Light Dragoons Uniform with Tartelons)
*X 6 Perry Plastic British Light Dragoons (Maryland Light Dragoon Uniform with Stove Pipe type hat)

District of Columbia Cavalry; 40 to 50 men; 1 Companies (3 models)
*X 3 Perry 3rd Continental Dragoons AWI (DC Alexandria Dragoons Uniform)

Reserve; 225 to 240 Cavalry (16 models plus a command figure)
2nd Light Dragoons 125 to 140 men; 
*X 9 Brigade Games or Knuckleduster American Light Dragoons plus a command figure. (10 total)

Virginian Light Dragoons; 100 men;
*X 6  Perry 16th Light Dragoon American War of Independence Models

*It is unclear, but it's possibly the reserve cavalry may have been combined in the second line as well.

Here are 3 of the Sources;






Friday, 30 December 2016

New American Light Dragoons from Brigade Games

Here are some new excellently sculpted American Light Dragoons for the War of 1812 from Brigade Games.

Unfortunately, based on Renee Chartrand, as far as I can tell they have the wrong plume. The only manufacturer to make the plume correctly in the centre so far was Knuckleduster. The side plumes illustrated on so many plates, and on the majority of sculpts,  are based on a post war example.

Otherwise, these do appear to be excellent miniatures. They can be fixed by simply trimming off the plume. Renee Chartrand depicts them as possibly removing their plume on campaign.







Here is the correct plume on the Knuckleduster Light Dragoon.


Here are my converted (Perry) Light Dragoons. 


Here is an artists depiction based on Renee Chartrand showing the plume removed. In his book, he has a contemporary uniform plate showing the plume on the centre at the front. The campaign pants were to be blue with a white stripe, but with shortages they may have had on their white pants on campaign as shown. Renee Chartrand states the plume was possibly / probably removed for campaign. All of the surviving helmets I have seen photos of have no plume still attached.


Here is the only illustration of the American Light Dragoons from the time I have seen, from "A Most Warlike Appearance" by Renee Chartrand.



The correct plumes as shown in "The United States Army 1812-15" by Osprey Publishing. *Note that the plates in "The American War" by Osprey show the incorrect plume.


Monday, 4 July 2016

Scenario; The Flight of the Royal George


Text of the Incident From Wikipedia
A fuller account can be seen here;
http://www.warof1812.ca/kingstonharbour1812.pdf

In November 1812, Royal George was the largest warship on the lake, operating under the command of British Commodore Hugh Earl (or "Earle"). On thr 9th of November 1812, an American fleet of seven ships under the command of Commodore Isaac Chauncey surprised Royal George as she passed near the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario. Royal George eluded the American vessels by slipping into the North Channel between Amherst Island and the mainland as night fell, making her way into the safety of her home harbour at Kingston by 2 a.m.

The pursuit of the Royal George
The Americans captured then burned the small sloop "The Two Brothers"

The following morning, the 10th of November, the American fleet resumed the pursuit, burning a small commercial vessel near Bath and proceeding along the shore. As they approached Kingston, they came under fire from shore batteries. Chauncey directed his ship, Oneida and the other American vessels to bombard and attempt to seize Royal George within its harbour. Artillery fire from the shore batteries along the shoreline, including two batteries on Point Henry, attempted to prevent them from closing on the British vessel. Round shot from the American vessels penetrated into the town but they were unable to capture Royal George. At the end of the day, they anchored out of sight of Kingston, intending to resume their attack the next day. However, an approaching storm caused Chauncey to withdraw hack to the American base at Sacketts Harbor without seizing their prize.

Above and below; depictions of the American fleet attacking the Royal George at Kingston Harbour



This would be the only American attack on Kingston during the War of 1812 as more personnel were sent to this important military and naval centre and strong fortifications were built on Point Henry to defend the dockyards. It was the only time that shots were fired from Point Henry in its history.




Kingston during the War of 1812

Reflections
Briefly at the beginning of the war the British had dominance on Lake Ontario. Chauncy quickly balanced things out by converting merchant vessels. After this action, more troops and batteries were added to Kingston. The Americans certainly had the upper hand in this incident but were not able to capture Kingston or the Royal George. A similar incident had happened in July but in reverse, when 3 British vessels attacked the Oneida at Sackett's Hatbour. 
In Chauncy's version of events the Royal George was almost sinking but Malcolmson's "The Lords of the Lake" states it had just one 32 pound hole in the hull, but the Ameeicans had several ships with hull and sail damage as well. The Americans had lost two entire armies by this point so we're looking for good news. The British had only one killed in this incident. The Provincial Marine were inexperienced and not up for a war.  They were under Commodore Hugh Earle. Shortly afterwards the British Navy took over under Yeo. 

Order of Battle

British
Commodore Hugh Earle (Poor)
Royal George 20 Guns
20 32 pound carronades

Collin's Bay
Gunboat est. 1 24 pounder

Shore Batteries
Collin's Bay
6 Pounder

Mississauga Point
2 9 Pounders

Point Henry
2 Batteries; 2 9 Pounders each 

Point Frederick
1 Battery; 2 9 Pounders

American
Commodore Isaac Chauncey (Average)

Oneida 18 Guns
16 24 pound carronades, 2 6 pounders

Hamilton 9 Guns 
8 18 pound carronades, 1 12 pounder (pivot)

Governor Tompkins 6 Guns
2 18 pound carronades, 1 32 pounder (pivot), 1 24 pounder (pivot), 2 9 pounders

Growler 5 Guns
1 24 pounder (pivot), 4 4 pounders

Conquest 3 Guns
2 24 pounders (pivots), 1 6 pounder

Pert 3 Guns
1 32 pounder (pivot), 2 4 pounders

Julia 2 Guns 
1 32 pounder (pivot), 1 12 pound (pivot)






Saturday, 2 July 2016

Ship Construction; The USS General Pike

Here is my first (almost) complete ship. I am going to add more rigging later, as well as cannons and some paint on the masts. Plus my flags are the wrong way. 


I think this one took 3 or 4 hours but I'm guessing half that long for the next ones.

In about an hour I had the hulls of the USS Madison, HMS Wolfe and HMS Royal George. 

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

War of 1812 Lake Ontario Fleets in 1815

The Lake Ontario Fleets in 1815
*For What If? Scenarios
I have found the information I was missing on the ships under construction at;
http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/Warof1812/2015/Issue24/NewOrleansClass.pdf
So here is what Lake Ontario would have looked like if the war had continued into 1815. 
I'm including the length of gun deck and "Tonnes burthen" for each. Tonnes burthen tells how much each ship can carry; basically the volume of the ship. 

British
Captain Edward Owen
Broadside Weight Up to June; 5157 Tonnes
Tonnes Burthen; 6232 t
Broadside Weight Late June On; 8133 Tonnes
Tonnes Burthen; 10 536

St. Lawrence 108 Guns; 1st Rate Ship of the Line
191 feet, 2305 t
2 68 pound carronades, 34 32 pound carronades, 34 24 pound long guns, 34 32 pound long guns

Wolfe 108 Guns (Est. June); 1st Rate Ship of the Line
191 feet, 2152 t
36 32 pound carronades, 76 24 pounders

Canada 108 Guns (Est. June); 1st Rate Ship of the Line
191 feet, 2152 t
36 32 pound carronades, 76 24 pounders

Prince Regent 58 Guns; Large 4th Rate Frigate
155 feet, 1293 t
*a razed third rate; Leander Class
4 68 pound carronades, 24 32 pound carronades, 28 24 pounders, 

Psyche 56 Guns; 4th Rate Frigate
130 feet, 769 t
28 32 pound carronades, 28 24 pounders

Princess Charlotte 42 Guns; Large 5th Rate Frigate
121 feet, 755 t
2 68 pound carronades, 16 32 pound carronades, 24 24 pounders

Montreal / Wolfe 23 Guns; 6th Rate Frigate 
101 feet, 426 t
4 68 pound carronades, 8 32 pound carronades, 1 24 pounder (pivot), 8 18 pounders

Niagara / Royal George 21 Guns; 6th Rate Frigate
96 feet, 330 t
18 32 pound carronades, 1 24 pounder (pivot), 2 18 pounders

Star / Lord Melville 14 Guns; Sloop / Brig
71 feet, 186 t
12 32 pound carronades, 2 18 pounders

Charwell / Earl of Moira 13 Guns; Sloop / Brig
70 feet, 168 t
12 24 pound carronades, 1 18 pounder (pivot)

Netley / Beresford 11 Guns; Sloop / Brig
72 feet, 142 t
10 18 pound carronades, 1 24 pounder (pivot)

American
Commodore Isaac Chauncey 
Broadside Weight Up To April; 2740 Tonnes
TonnesBurthen; 5965 t
Broadside Weight To Mid May; 4508 Tonnes 
Tonnes Burthen; 8908 t
Broadside Weight May On; 7362 Tonnes 
Tonnes Burthen; 13 431

New Orleans 106 Guns (Est. Early April); 1st Rate Ship of the Line
204 feet, 2948 t
28 43 pound carronades, 70 32 pounders, 8 24 pounders

Chippewa 106 Guns (Est. May 15th); 1st Rate Ship of the Line
204 feet, 2948 t
28 43 pound carronades, 70 32 pounders, 8 24 pounders

Plattsburgh 56 Guns (Est. May 15th); Very Large 4th Rate
180 feet, 1580 t (based on Superior)
26 42 pound carronades, 30 32 pounders, 2 24 pounders 

Superior 58 Guns; Very Large 4th Rate
180 feet, 1580 t
*this ship was the size of a razed 2nd rate or large 3rd rate
26 42 pound carronades, 30 32 pounders, 2 24 pounders 

Mohawk 42 Guns; Large 5th Rate
155 feet, 1350 t
*the size of a razed third rate
16 32 pound carronades, 26 24 pounders

General Pike 26 Gun; Large 6th Rate
145 feet, 875 t
 *razed 4th rate
24 24 pounders, 2 24 pounders (pivots)

Madison 23 Guns; 6th Rate
112 feet, 580 t
8 32 pound carronades, 14 18 pounders, 1 18 pounder (pivot)

Jones 20 Guns; 6th Rate
117 feet, 509 t
*Overgunned and unstable
16 42 pound carronades, 4 24 pounders

Jefferson 20 Guns; 6th Rate
117 feet, 509 t
*Overgunned and unstable
16 42 pound carronades, 4 24 pounders

Oneida 18 Guns; Sloop / Brig
85 feet, 262 t
16 24 pound carronades, 2 6 pounders

Sylph 16 Guns; Sloop / Brig
65 feet, 300 t?
14 24 pound carronades, 2 9 pounders

Situation by June of 1815
British
Broadside Weight; 8133 Tonnes
Tonnes Burthen; 10 536
Average Janka Hardness 1320 lbf
3 1st Rate Ships
1 Large 4th Rate Ship (razed third rate)
1 4th Rate Ship
1 Large 5th Rate Ship
2 6th Rate Ships
3 Brigs / Sloops 

Americans 
Broadside Weight 1815; 7362 Tonnes
Tonnes Burthen; 13 431
Average Janka Hardness; 1000 lbf
2 1st Rate Ships 
2 Very Large 4th Rate Ships (razed second/third rate)
1 Large 5th Rate Ship (razed third rate)
1 Large 6th Rate Ship
3 6th Rate Ships
2 Brigs / Sloops

British; 551 Guns, 11 Ships
3 Large, 3 Medium, 5 Small
Americans; 495 Guns, 11 Ships
2 Large, 3 Medium, 6 Small

Broadside Weight; British +10%
Tonnes Berthen; Americans +22%
Wood Hardness; British +32%

Both sides were lead pretty well on Ontario. They both looked for a fight when they knew they were stronger, and wisely avoided fighting when they were weaker.  The American Frigates were blockaded for the most part so crew and cannons were sent to the Great Lakes for the fleet there. The British also had a lot of Ocean going crew, marines and officers on Lake Ontario by the end of the war.